Pronunciation of ‘s’ and ‘es’ plural endings

In English, we mostly form the plural of a noun by adding ‘s’. In some cases we add ‘es’:

  • 1 dog, 2 dogs
  • 1 class, 2 classes

At the end of a word, ‘s’ has two possible pronunciations: /s/ or /z/.

1. After the following sounds we pronounce ‘s’ as /s/:

2. In all other cases we pronounce ‘s’ as /z/:

When the plural form has the ‘es’ ending, the pronunciation is always /iz/:

See also: Spelling rules section for Spelling of plurals: when to add ‘s’ or ‘es’