Subordinating conjunctions: so that, until, even if, whereas, . . .

Subordinating conjunctions are conjunctions that connect a main (independent) clause and a subordinate (dependent) clause.

The clause beginning with the subordinating conjunction is always the subordinate clause, which depends on the main clause and cannot exist without it.

Common subordinating conjunctions include:

because, so that, as, since to express cause or reason
before, after, until / till, when, as soon as, whenever, while to express time
unless, if, even if, in case, providing to express condition
although, even though, whereas to express contrast or concession

Example sentences:

  • Pete didn’t go to work yesterday because he was ill. [reason]
  • As he was feeling unwell, Pete didn’t go to work yesterday. [cause, reason; more formal than because]
  • I’ll lend you a map so that you can find the place more easily. [reason]
  • I’ll call you as soon as I get home. [time]
  • I’ll wait until you arrive. [time]
  • Did he say anything before he left? [time]
  • The baby gets very grumpy whenever he’s tired. [time]
  • If he doesn’t change his attitude, he’ll lose his job. [condition]
  • Even if you win a million dollars, it doesn’t mean you’ll be happy. [condition]
  • I’ll lend you my car, providing you promise to be careful. [condition]
  • Elliot is tall and blond, whereas his brother is short and has dark hair. [comparison]
  • Mark’s very tall, although he’s not as tall as his father yet. [comparison]
  • Although they’re poor, they’re happy. [concession]
  • Even though he’s rich, I’m not sure that he’s happy. [concession]

See also:

What are conjunctions?
Coordinating conjunctions: so, and, but, or, . . .
Correlative conjunctions: neither . . . nor, whether . . . or, . . .