Subordinating conjunctions: so that, until, even if, whereas, . . .
Subordinating conjunctions are conjunctions that connect a main (independent) clause and a subordinate (dependent) clause.
The clause beginning with the subordinating conjunction is always the subordinate clause, which depends on the main clause and cannot exist without it.
Common subordinating conjunctions include:
|because, so that, as, since||to express cause or reason|
|before, after, until / till, when, as soon as, whenever, while||to express time|
|unless, if, even if, in case, providing||to express condition|
|although, even though, whereas||to express contrast or concession|
- Pete didn’t go to work yesterday because he was ill. [reason]
- As he was feeling unwell, Pete didn’t go to work yesterday. [cause, reason; more formal than because]
- I’ll lend you a map so that you can find the place more easily. [reason]
- I’ll call you as soon as I get home. [time]
- I’ll wait until you arrive. [time]
- Did he say anything before he left? [time]
- The baby gets very grumpy whenever he’s tired. [time]
- If he doesn’t change his attitude, he’ll lose his job. [condition]
- Even if you win a million dollars, it doesn’t mean you’ll be happy. [condition]
- I’ll lend you my car, providing you promise to be careful. [condition]
- Elliot is tall and blond, whereas his brother is short and has dark hair. [comparison]
- Mark’s very tall, although he’s not as tall as his father yet. [comparison]
- Although they’re poor, they’re happy. [concession]
- Even though he’s rich, I’m not sure that he’s happy. [concession]