Confusing words: rubbish, trash, garbage

In this post I’m going to talk rubbish. Does that mean I’ll be talking nonsense? No, actually I’m going to look at vocabulary connected to rubbish in the sense of household waste, including synonyms and related words.

So, rubbish is the stuff that we throw out of our homes. You may also have heard other words for the same thing: garbage, refuse, trash, litter, as well as words like dustbin and trash can.

an old-fashioned dustbin

Why are there different words for rubbish, and what’s the difference? In some cases, which word we use depends on whether we’re British or American.

Let’s try to make some sense of all this rubbish!

Words for household waste

[uncountable noun]
This is British English (BrE). British people throw away rubbish.
garbage, trash
[uncountable nouns]
American English (AmE) – Americans throw away garbage and trash.
garbage vs. trash Americans differentiate between type here:
garbage is used for waste from the kitchen – ‘wet’ waste, you could say;
trash is things like paper and packaging – ‘dry’ materials.
[uncountable noun]
This is not household waste. Litter is small things such as cans, bottles and paper that people leave lying on the streets and in other public places.
Litter belongs in a litter bin.
[uncountable noun]
This is a more formal word for rubbishgarbage and trash. The pronunciation is /ˈrefjuːs/
rubbish bin
[countable nouns]
(BrE) A dustbin is a small container for rubbish, mostly outside. The modern type, with wheels, is called a wheelie bin.
Put rubbish in the dustbin!
garbage can
trash can
[countable nouns]
(AmE) A small container for garbage and trash, usually outside.
garbage in a garbage can
litter bin
[countable noun]
A small container in a street or other public place where people can put litter.


And to collect all this waste we need the following:

refuse collector, waste collector These are formal words for the person who takes away refuse/rubbish/garbage.
dustman, bin man These are informal words used in BrE for a refuse collector.
trash collector, garbage collector, garbage man These are informal words used in AmE for a refuse collector.
dustbin lorry, dustcart (BrE),
garbage truck, trash truck (AmE)
This is the vehicle used to take away refuse/rubbish/garbage.

recycle bin

Reduce waste – recycle whenever you can!

And if you didn’t work it out from the context of the first sentence, talk rubbish means to ‘talk nonsense’.


Stuart is an English teacher and runs the Speakspeak website. He currently lives in Prague and has been teaching English for 20 years.


  1. Excellent. And good to show all the BrE and AmE differences.

    How about “trash talk”? Is that used in BrE? For AmE, it means to boastfully belittle an opponent and predict one’s own victory, etc.

  2. ailyn panergar says:

    i just learned that brE and amE has difference

  3. Kindly tackle about different an common australian words or idioms used..thanks

  4. Great article! Thanks a lot!
    I’ve only got a couple of questions. Could you help me with these?
    What’s the relation between ‘waste’ and ‘rubbish’ (‘trash’, ‘garbage’), and ‘waste’ and ‘refuse’?
    Is the term ‘wheelie bin’ commonly used in UK? What do you call a waste container used at home (e.g. the one kept under the kitchen sink)? Is there a special term for the area where the outdoor waste containers are kept (e.g. in the courtyard of an appartment block). Thanks.

  5. Tabi Tataw Farrokh says:

    Trash ,gabbage and litter have really got me going.U clearified that now.Thanks

  6. Geraldine Pugh says:

    What about in an office? In BrE we would say the bin, or the waste paper bin/waste paper basket. What about in the US? I guess these definitions came before we started recycling paper!

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