10 redundant words (words you can delete)

In one of his six rules for writers, George Orwell said: ‘If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.’ Shorter is better, he was saying. Using more words than necessary to express ourselves can make for bad writing and be confusing to the reader.

While Orwell was referring to clarity in technical and political writing, there are many everyday sentences and phrases which also contain unnecessary words.

In this post we will look at some common examples of words which, in certain cases, should be deleted. (Incidentally, the term for using a word which adds no extra meaning to a sentence is pleonasm. When we use a word which simply repeats the meaning of another word, it is called tautology. In both cases the unnecessary word is redundant and should be deleted.)

1. years’ time

He intends to retire in three years’ time.
‘Time’ is redundant here and can be deleted. The sentence says nothing that ‘He intends to retire in three years’ doesn’t say. Adding ‘time’ only increases the chance of forgetting to use the apostrophe after ‘years’.

2. the reason why

The number of crimes is increasing but detectives don’t know the reason why.
For some people, ‘the reason why’ is acceptable in the middle of a sentence. However, ‘why’ is clearly redundant after ‘reason’ when placed at the end of a sentence, as in the above example. Either remove ‘why’, or delete ‘reason’ and write ‘detectives don’t know why’.

3. whether or not

I don’t know whether or not he’s coming.
This is a similar problem to ‘reason why’. It is sufficient to write or say ‘I don’t know whether he’s coming.’

4. currently + being done

The bridge is currently being repaired.
The word ‘currently’ is both unnecessary and incorrect here. The present continuous passive structure ‘is being repaired’ tells us that the action is taking place now. Including ‘currently’ merely repeats that.

Alternatively, we could say ‘The bridge is currently under repair.’

5. past experience

Research has shown that past experience helps us make complex decisions.
The word ‘past’ should be removed. This error is surprisingly common, even in serious publications. ‘Past history’ and ‘past tradition’ are similar examples.

6. the mark / the level

Turnover fell below the two million pounds mark.
It is enough to write ‘Turnover fell below two million pounds.’ By adding ‘mark’ we are simply putting a redundant word on the end of the sentence.

7. estimated at about

Profit is estimated at about 10 million pounds.
In essence, ‘estimate’ and ‘about’ have the same meaning. Write either ‘is estimated at 10 million pounds’ or ‘is estimated to be 10 million pounds’.

8. very unique

Whitney Houston had a very unique voice.
Something cannot be ‘very unique’, not even Whitney’s voice. Things are either unique or they are not unique.

9. the old adage

As the old adage says: don’t burn your bridges.
By definition an adage is always old. In terms of its age, it can be nothing but old. Say only ‘the adage’.

10. think to myself

I thought to myself how strange it seemed.
And that is a very strange thing to write. After all, who else can we think to other than to ourselves? Make it ‘I thought how strange it seemed.’

I hope you found this article interesting and useful. If so, please share it with friends. Thanks.


Stuart is an English teacher and runs the Speakspeak website. He currently lives in Prague and has been teaching for over 20 years. Follow Stuart and contact him by subscribing to his monthly newsletter.


  1. qudratullah - March 10, 2012, 9:27 am Reply

    Very useful lesson. please post more.

  2. Jason - August 1, 2012, 2:24 pm Reply

    Another phrase that always gets me, and it’s becoming rather prevalent is “having said that’ and its (and that’s its, and not it’s) variants. As in “The weather here tends to be much cooler in the summer. Having said that, we had a week long heat wave last month.” The simple ‘however’ would suffice instead of the longer ‘Having said that.’

    Another word that I cringe at is utilize, as in The batter is utilizing his bat much more effectively. What’s wrong with using?

    People think by using longer words and phrases it will make them seem smarter.

    Sometimes shorter is better.

    • Stuart Cook - August 2, 2012, 4:03 pm Reply

      I agree, Jason. In written English ‘having said that’ is clumsy. ‘However’ is a tidier alternative, and for occasional variation I’d use ‘that said’.

  3. 3 Writing Habits That Will Make You a Better Writer | Dark Gaia Productions - September 17, 2013, 12:52 pm Reply

    […] way to make your writing tighter. Think about what you’re writing and keep an eye out for redundant words and save your adjectives for when you really need them. If you see them sneaking into your story, […]

  4. Brutus Beefcake - March 5, 2014, 2:17 pm Reply

    A commonly used example is ‘personally’ as in “I personally think that, blah, blah … “. Very annoying!

  5. Mary A. - April 21, 2014, 6:25 pm Reply

    Very good advice.

    May I add a redundancy that annoys me? That is saying that something happened “back in” a specific year instead of just “in” the specific year. If you’re mentioning something in the past, how could it be anything but back?

  6. J Waller - April 23, 2014, 2:33 am Reply

    I don’t like the usage “as of yet” which is used by the media often. Why not just say “yet”?

  7. Barry Gorden - April 24, 2014, 6:38 pm Reply

    Would “And I think to myself, what a wonderful world” be improved by saying “And I think it’s a wonderful world”? The English language is tricky and has many nuances.

    Can something be very unique? No. But can it be most unique? Yes. Because there are two superlatives: the common superlative of comparison and the less common emphatic superlative. While it is true that the word “unique” can not be compared, it can be emphasized. Language is expressive; it is not logical.

    • olli - March 6, 2016, 4:40 pm Reply

      Sorry, that’s just wrong. “Unique” is an absolute, and specific. “Most unique” is technically (and intrinsically by its very definition) incorrect.

  8. Pete Cumming - June 22, 2017, 7:38 pm Reply

    ” So” used as a preliminary to any statement has become irritatingly common and must be a redundant element in the construction of a sentence.

    • Stuart Cook - June 23, 2017, 10:16 am Reply

      I completely agree, Pete. It seems to be predominantly US English, a substitute for the British English “well”.

  9. Cherie - December 29, 2017, 4:57 am Reply

    I wonder about “interestingly enough”. I thought I’d find it in this thread. Wouldn’t saying just “interestingly” be sufficient?

  10. Scott M. - May 25, 2018, 2:38 pm Reply

    What about the word “that”? As in “I am certain THAT she understands,” as opposed to, “I am certain she understands.” It seems unnecessary.

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